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Harvard Citation Style: Multi-Media Formats

In This Guide...

Click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type


  • Why is Referencing Important?
  • Getting Started

Reference Formats

  • References by Format
  • Citing Info Someone Else has Cited


  • No Authors
  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • No Editors
  • 1, 2 or More Editors
  • Chapters in Books

Company Information

  • Company Reports
  • Company Profiles

Conference Proceedings

  • Print
  • Online


  • Websites
  • Blogs
  • Web Images
  • Web Documents
  • Computer Software

Journal Articles

  • CMO Articles
  • Print
  • Online

Lecture Notes

Multimedia Formats

  • Audio-Visual Material

Newspaper Articles

  • Print
  • Online

Patents & Standards

  • Citing Patents: Examples
  • Citing Patents: Standards


  • Citing Theses: Examples

All Examples

  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

Citing Multimedia Formats

  • For audio-visual material there may be no author in which case the title and date can be provided in the in-text reference
  • Format details should be included
  • If the source is electronic, details of the online location and date of access should be included in your Reference List

Citing Multimedia Formats: Examples

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Video (Effective performance appraisals 1994) Effective performance appraisals 1994, (video recording), Melbourne, Educational Media Australia.
Television Programme (Crystal 1993) Crystal, L (executive producer) 1993, The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour (television broadcast) 11 October 1993, New York and Washington DC, Public Broadcasting Service.
Audio Podcast (Van Nuys 2007) Van Nuys, D (producer) 2007, 'The anatomy of a lobotomist [Show 84]', Shrink Rap Radio (podcast). Available from: <>. [11 April 2007].
Video Podcast (Kloft 2006) Kloft, M (producer/director) 2006, The Nuremberg trials (motion picture), in M.Sameuls (executive producer), American experience (podcast). Available from: <>. [4 March 2006].

Music Track from an Album

(Shocked 1992) Shocked, M 1992, 'Over the waterfall', on Arkansas Traveller (CD). New York, Polygram Music.
Video Blog Post (Norton 2006) Norton, R 2006, 'How to train a cat to operate a light switch' (video file). Available from: <>. [4 November 2006].

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