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Tips: References List 3.2
- Cited works are numbered in order of initial appearance in the text, and appear in the Reference List in numerical order.
- Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.
- Authors’ names are inverted, and use only initials for first and middle names. No periods between initials. (Example - Antosh, MA)
- In article titles only the first word and proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized are capitalized.
- Use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (see the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus).
- For journals use issue numbers in parentheses after the volume number. If there is no issue number specify month before the year.
Tips: Titles 3.9
- In titles of articles, books, parts of books, and other material, retain the spelling, abbreviations, and style for numbers used in the original.
- Numbers that begin a title are spelled out (although exceptions are made for years; see 2.1.2, Manuscript Preparation, Titles and Subtitles, Numbers).
Tips: Numbering 3.5
- References should be numbered consecutively with arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text.
- Two references should not be combined under a single reference number.
Tips: Reference Given In-text 3.3
- In the text the author(s) may not be named,
- The title may not be given,
- The name of the journal is abbreviated only when enclosed in parentheses,
- Inclusive page numbers are given.
- Some resources, such as Web URLs, may be listed in the text when it is the Web site itself that is referred to rather than content on the site.
General Formatting Rules
Always consult the journal’s instructions for authors; do not begin the abstract by repeating the title; do not cite references; include hypothesis... (see Abstract: general guidelines for full description)
“Acknowledgments” is the term used to cover the information that follows the body of the article and precedes the references. NOTE: Placement may vary among journals.
Appendixes are material that might be considered ancillary to the content of the article (i.e. survey).
Bylines and End-of-Text Signatures: 2.2
In general major articles, authors are listed in a byline, which appears immediately below the title or subtitle. The authors' names and academic degrees are used, as in the byline.
First word of every complete sentence should be capitalized, as well as the first word of a title.
Graphs, line art, diagrams, charts, and other black-and-white figures should be submitted as a high quality resolution electronic file. NOTE: Preferred format for submitting figures varies among scientific journals.
ePub Ahead of Print 2.10.15
For manuscripts and articles that have been previously posted to a preprint server, the following formats may be used... (see page for full details).
Quotation Marks in Titles: 2.1.1
If quotation marks are part of the title or subtitle, then use double, not single quotation marks.
Running Foot: 2.4
Pages customarily have the journal name or journal abbreviation, volume number, date of issue, and page number. You may also include a shortened version of the article title.
Follow the same rules for titles for spelling, abbreviations, numbers, capitalization, and use of italics. NOTE: Only exception is for journal articles the subtitle begins with a lowercase letter.
Information in the table must be accurate and consistent with that in the text in content and style. It should be able to stand independently, without requiring explanation from the text.
Titles & Subtitles: 2.1
At the top of the page, use a short title header that is concise and informative. The subtitle may expand on the title as supplementary information but should not contain key elements of the study.