GUIDELINES FOR HOW TO CARRY OUT AN ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
When comparing therapies:
PRISMA (Guideline on how to perform and write-up a systematic review and/or meta-analysis of the outcomes reported in multiple clinical trials of therapeutic interventions. PRISMA replaces the previous QUORUM statement guidelines): Liberati, A,, Altman, D,, Moher, D, et al. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Plos Medicine, 6(7):e1000100. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100
When comparing diagnostic methods:
STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) Statement. (Reporting guidelines for writing up a study comparing the accuracy of competing diagnostic methods) http://www.stard-statement.org/
When evaluating clinical practice guidelines:
AGREE Research Trust (ART) (2013). Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE-II). (A 23-item instrument for assessing the quality of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Used internationally for evaluating or deciding which guidelines could be recommended for use in practice or to inform health policy decisions.)
National Guideline Clearinghouse Extent of Adherence to Trustworthy Standards (NEATS) Instrument (2019). (A 15-item instrument using scales of 1-5 to evaluate a guideline's adherence to the Institute of Medicine's standard for trustworthy guidelines. It has good external validity among guideline developers and good interrater reliability across trained reviewers.)
When reviewing genetics studies
Human genetics review reporting guidelines. Little J, Higgins JPT (eds.). The HuGENet™ HuGE Review Handbook, version 1.0.
When you need to re-analyze individual participant data
If you wish to collect, check, and re-analyze individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials addressing a particular research question, you should follow the PRISMA-IPD guidelines as reported in Stewart, L.A., Clarke, M., Rovers, M., et al. (2015). Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data: The PRISMA-IPD Statement. JAMA, 313(16):1657-1665. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3656.
GUIDELINES FOR HOW TO WRITE UP FOR PUBLICATION THE RESULTS OF ONE QUANTITATIVE CLINICAL TRIAL
When reporting the results of a Randomized Controlled Trial:
Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement. (Reporting guidelines for writing up a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial). http://www.consort-statement.org
GUIDELINES FOR HOW TO CARRY OUT A NARRATIVE REVIEW OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH / OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
When reviewing observational studies/qualitative research:
STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. (Reporting guidelines for various types of health sciences observational studies). http://www.strobe-statement.org
Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=192614
RATS Qualitative research systematic review guidelines. https://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/qualitative-research-review-guidelines-rats/
The Guide to Community Preventive Services. Systematic Review Methods. (Public Health Prevention systematic review guidelines) http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/methods.html
Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) network. (Reporting guidelines for various types of health research studies). http://www.equator-network.org/resource-centre/library-of-health-research-reporting/
Cochrane Qualitative & Implementation Methods Group. (2019). Training resources. Retrieved from https://methods.cochrane.org/qi/training-resources. (Training materials for how to do a meta-synthesis, or qualitative evidence synthesis).
Green, B. N., Johnson, C. D., & Adams, A. (2006). Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets of the trade. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 5(3): 101-117. DOI: 10.1016/S0899-3467(07)60142-6. This is a very good article about what to take into consideration when writing any type of narrative review.
Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91-108. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x. (Describes 14 different types of literature and systematic review, useful for thinking at the outset about what sort of literature review you want to do.)
Sutton, A., Clowes, M., Preston, L., & Booth, A. (2019). Meeting the review family: exploring review types and associated information retrieval requirements. Health information and libraries journal, 36(3), 202–222. doi:10.1111/hir.12276 (An updated look at different types of literature review, expands on the Grant & Booth 2009 article listed above).
Institute of Medicine. (2011). Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. Washington, DC: National Academies (Systematic review guidelines from the Health and Medicine Division (HMD) of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (formerly called the Institute of Medicine)).
Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions (International Cochrane Collaboration systematic review guidelines).
Cochrane Qualitative & Implementation Methods Group. (2019). Training resources. Retrieved from https://methods.cochrane.org/qi/training-resources. (How to do a meta-synthesis, or qualitative evidence synthesis).
Center for Reviews and Dissemination (University of York, England) (2009). Systematic Reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking systematic reviews in health care. (British systematic review guidelines).
Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ) (2013). Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews. (U.S. comparative effectiveness review guidelines)
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) (2013). The PCORI Methodology Report. (A 47-item methodology checklist for U.S. patient-centered outcomes research. Established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, PCORI funds the development of guidance on the comparative effectivess of clinical healthcare, similar to the UK National Institute for Clinical Evidence but without reporting cost-effectiveness QALY metrics).
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) (2019). Grey Matters: a practical tool for searching health-related grey literature. Retrieved from https://www.cadth.ca/resources/finding-evidence/grey-matters. A checklist of N American & international online databases and websites you can use to search for unpublished reports, posters, and policy briefs, on topics including general medicine and nursing, public and mental health, health technololgy assessment, drug and device regulatory, approvals, warnings, and advisories.
Hempel, S., Xenakis, L., & Danz, M. (2016). Systematic Reviews for Occupational Safety and Health Questions: Resources for Evidence Synthesis. Retrieved 8/15/16 from http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1463.html. NIOSH guidelines for how to carry out a systematic review in the occupational safety and health domain.
A good source for reporting guidelines is the NLM's Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). (An international group of acadmics/clinicians working to promote a common approach to grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.)
Phillips, B., Ball, C., Sackett, D., et al. (2009). Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence. Retrieved 3/20/17 from https://www.cebm.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/CEBM-Levels-of-Evidence-2.1.pdf. (Another commonly used criteria for grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations, developed in part by EBM guru David Sackett.)
Garrard, J. (2007). Health Sciences Literature Review Made Easy: The Matrix Method (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. (Textbook of health sciences literature search methods).
Zilberberg, M. (2012). Between the lines: Finding the truth in medical literature. Goshen, MA: Evimed Research Press. (Concise book on foundational concepts of evidence-based medicine).
Lang, T. (2009). The Value of Systematic Reviews as Research Activities in Medical Education. In: Lang, T. How to write, publish, & present in the health sciences : a guide for clinicians & laboratory researchers. Philadelphia : American College of Physicians. (This book chapter has a helpful bibliography on systematic review and meta-analysis methods)
Brown, S., Martin, E., Garcia, T., Winter, M., García, A., Brown, A., Cuevas H., & Sumlin, L. (2013). Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 31(6), 257-265. doi:10.1097/NXN.0b013e318295e69c. (This article advocates for the programming of electronic fillable forms in Adobe Acrobat Pro to feed data into Excel or SPSS for analysis, and to use cloud based file sharing systems such as Blackboard, RefWorks, or EverNote to facilitate sharing knowledge about the decision-making process and keep data secure. Of particular note are the flowchart describing this process, and their example screening form used for the initial screening of abstracts).
Brown, S., Upchurch, S., & Acton, G. (2003). A framework for developing a coding scheme for meta-analysis. Western Journal Of Nursing Research, 25(2), 205-222. (This article describes the process of how to design a coded data extraction form and codebook, Table 1 is an example of a coded data extraction form that can then be used to program a fillable form in Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft Access).
Elamin, M. B., Flynn, D. N., Bassler, D., Briel, M., Alonso-Coello, P., Karanicolas, P., & ... Montori, V. M. (2009). Choice of data extraction tools for systematic reviews depends on resources and review complexity. Journal Of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(5), 506-510. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.10.016 (This article offers advice on how to decide what tools to use to extract data for analytical systematic reviews).
Riegelman R. Studying a Study and Testing a Test: Reading Evidence-based Health Research, 6th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. (Textbook of quantitative statistical methods used in health sciences research). http://www.studyingastudy.com
Rathbone, J., Hoffmann, T., & Glasziou, P. (2015). Faster title and abstract screening? Evaluating Abstrackr, a semi-automated online screening program for systematic reviewers. Systematic Reviews, 480. doi:10.1186/s13643-015-0067-6
Guyatt, G., Rennie, D., Meade, M., & Cook, D. (2015). Users' guides to the medical literature (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education Medical. (This is a foundational textbook on evidence-based medicine and of particular use to the reviewer who wants to learn about the different types of published research article e.g. "what is a case report?" and to understand what types of study design best answer what types of clinical question).
Glanville, J., Duffy, S., Mccool, R., & Varley, D. (2014). Searching ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to inform systematic reviews: what are the optimal search approaches? Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA, 102(3), 177–183. https://doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.102.3.007
Ouzzani, M., Hammady, H., Fedorowicz, Z., & Elmagarmid, A. (2016). Rayyan a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 5: 210, DOI: 10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4. http://rdcu.be/nzDM
Kwon Y, Lemieux M, McTavish J, Wathen N. (2015). Identifying and removing duplicate records from systematic review searches. J Med Libr Assoc. 103(4): 184-8. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.103.4.004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512216
Bramer WM, Giustini D, de Jonge GB, Holland L, Bekhuis T. (2016). De-duplication of database search results for systematic reviews in EndNote. J Med Libr Assoc. 104(3):240-3. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.104.3.014. Erratum in: J Med Libr Assoc. 2017 Jan;105(1):111.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27366130
McGowan J, Sampson M, Salzwedel DM, Cogo E, Foerster V, Lefebvre C. PRESS Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies: 2015 Guideline Statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016;75:40–46. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.01.021. PRESS is a guideline with a checklist for librarians to critically appraise the search strategy for a systematic review literature search.
Clark, JM, Sanders, S, Carter, M, Honeyman, D, Cleo, G, Auld, Y, Booth, D, Condron, P, Dalais, C, Bateup, S, Linthwaite, B, May, N, Munn, J, Ramsay, L, Rickett, K, Rutter, C, Smith, A, Sondergeld, P, Wallin, M, Jones, M & Beller, E 2020, 'Improving the translation of search strategies using the Polyglot Search Translator: a randomized controlled trial', Journal of the Medical Library Association, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 195-207.
Journal articles describing systematic review methods can be searched for in PubMed using this search string in the PubMed search box: sysrev_methods [sb]. A list of systematic review methods is on the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Health website.
GW researchers may want to consider using Refworks to manage citations, and GW Box to store the full text PDF's of review articles. You can also use online survey forms such as Qualtrics, RedCAP, or Survey Monkey, to design and create your own coded fillable forms, and export the data to Excel or one of the qualitative analytical software tools listed above.