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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Secondary Sources

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition.

Secondary Sources

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report.

In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References.

The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

General Format 


      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read], Year)
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Year qtd. as cited in Author Surname [of the source you read],
      Year, page number)


      Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial [of the source you read]. (Year). Book title:
            Subtitle. Publisher.


      NOTE: If you were using an indirect source from an article, refer to the journals
      section of this guide.




      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      Fong’s 2003 study (as cited in Bertram, 2009) found that older students’ memory can
      be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested.


Bertram, S.A. (2009). How we Remember: Testing our capacity to remember. Jossey-Bass
     Tip: Do not include Fong (2003) in your References; do include Bertram (2009).

Subject Guide

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