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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: APA

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition.

Helpful Tip!

How do I cite an article I found using an iPhone, Android, or computer-based app? It doesn't matter on what device you read the article, but providing the reader a direct path to the "original" source of the material.

Remember - the "app" is not the source of the article - the "journal" is your source. Cite it as you would any journal article.  


APA's Official Resources

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI logo

What is a DOI? A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA!

The rules for DOIs have been updated in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. They should be included as URLs, rather than just the alphanumeric string.




  • doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114

Getting Started!

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American Psychological Association (APA) style is commonly used for citing references in student papers in science, medical, public health, health sciences and nursing as well as the social science.

 The purpose of documentation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
  • Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper.

This guide is based on the APA Manual (7th ed.) that was published in 2020. 

The following sections provide you with information and examples that will help you to cite the sources that you come across during your research. 

General Style Guidelines


Journal/Magazine Articles

Web Sites

Audiovisual Media


Other Sources

For more examples and information, consult the following publications:

How & When to Cite - GW Writing Center

The Dos and Don'ts of Paraphrasing - GW Writing Center

What is RefWorks?

What is RefWorks

RefWorks is an online research management, writing, and collaboration tool designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share references.

Use RefWorks to

  • quickly generate bibliographies in any citation style format. (APA*, AMA, MLA, and more!),
  • create & organize your own personal database of references,
  • import references directly from databases, journals, or the library catalog, and
  • share your RefWorks folder of reference and easily collaborate on group projects.

New Users: Getting Started!

Note: If asked to provide a Group Code, please contact the Himmelfarb Library (

*Tip: Several APA 7th citation style versions are available in RefWorks. Watch this two-minute video to get tips on selecting the correct version for your needs. 

Subject Guide

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